He says that pleasure completes the activity that it accompanies, but then adds, mysteriously, that it completes the activity in the manner of an end that is added on. Similarly for the moral virtues.
He says, not that happiness is virtue, but that it is virtuous activity. Since man is a rational animal, human happiness depends on the exercise of his reason.
He organizes his material by first studying ethical virtue in general, then moving to a discussion of particular ethical virtues temperance, courage, and so onand finally completing his survey by considering the intellectual virtues practical wisdom, theoretical wisdom, etc.
If we look at nature, we notice that there are four different kinds of things that exist in the world, each one defined by a different purpose: It is praiseworthy only if it can be shown that a self-lover will be an admirable citizen.
Rather, they are relationships held together because each individual regards the other as the source of some advantage to himself or some pleasure he receives.
The sketchy answer he gives in Book I is that happiness consists in virtuous activity. It seems that all other goods are a means towards obtaining happiness, while happiness is always an end in itself.
But the intermediate point that is chosen by an expert in any of the crafts will vary from one situation to another. But some vulnerability to these disruptive forces is present even in more-or-less virtuous people; that is why even a good political community needs laws and the threat of punishment.
One could say that he deliberates, if deliberation were something that post-dated rather than preceded action; but the thought process he goes through after he acts comes too late to save him from error. Aristotle conceives happiness not primarily as an exercise of virtue in private or with friends, but as the exercise of virtue in governing an ideal state.
For he thinks that this kind of friendship can exist only when one spends a great deal of time with the other person, participating in joint activities and engaging in mutually beneficial behavior; and one cannot cooperate on these close terms with every member of the political community.
If we use reason well, we live well as human beings; or, to be more precise, using reason well over the course of a full life is what happiness consists in.
Rather his idea seems to be that in addition to our full-fledged reasoning capacity, we also have psychological mechanisms that are capable of a limited range of reasoning. Does such good will exist in all three kinds of friendship, or is it confined to relationships based on virtue?
Little is said about what it is for an activity to be unimpeded, but Aristotle does remind us that virtuous activity is impeded by the absence of a sufficient supply of external goods b17— Aristotle distinguishes two kinds of akrasia: His intention in Book I of the Ethics is to indicate in a general way why the virtues are important; why particular virtues—courage, justice, and the like—are components of happiness is something we should be able to better understand only at a later point.Aristotle: The Ideal of Human Fulfillment (This is a summary of a chapter in a book I often used in university classes: Twelve Theories of Human Nature.
Brackets indicate my comments.) Aristotle ( BCE) was a student of Plato’s and the tutor of Alexander the Great. In Aristotle's ethical work, "Nicomachean Ethics," he describes human nature as having rational and irrational psyches as well as a natural drive for creating society, gaining knowledge, finding happiness and feeling connected with God.
More broadly, Aristotle believed that every species, including. Theory of Human Nature – The Tripartite Structure of the Soul – [Having encountered the social self of Confucianism, the divine self of Hinduism, and the no-self of Buddhism, we come to dualism.] Plato is a dualist ; there is both immaterial mind (soul) and material body, and it is the soul that knows the forms.
In his view, human beings a nature life is a life of justice. (Boucher and Kelly,p76) Aristotle stressed that "virtue of justice belongs to the soul and a virtue is the best arrangement, character or ability of something useful or available.".
Machiavelli, however, had a negative view on human nature and made the central message of his writings based on human weakness (Western Humanities, pg. ).
In The Prince, Machiavelli describes the many negative traits that are inherent among human beings. Aristotle's View On The Nature Of Human Life: Is It Correct? Essays: OverAristotle's View On The Nature Of Human Life: Is It Correct?
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